Additional Support Materials
DIAGNOSTIC TERMS & LABELS:
FND Functional Neurological Disorder [FNSD Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder] was added as an inclusion term to Conversion Disorder. Meaning, they are the same diagnostic label in the DSM-5. Other changes included, the need for a known connected psychological trauma in order to diagnose FND/CD was removed. Criterion was changed because many patients do not have obvious psychological trauma connections or triggers. Research has found some patients lack a direct psychological trauma connection to symptoms at onset, or in the past. Psychological illness does not always necessarily manifest from symptoms, either. This would include the ideology that FND/CD is the result of suppressed trauma in ones past.
CD Conversion Disorder is the coding name listed in both DSM-IV and DSM-5. An inclusion term, Functional Neurological Symptoms Disorder, has been added to the DSM-5 edition. Changes to the criterion have also taken place. The need to identify a psychological stressor has been removed because doctors have been in the habit of attributing functional symptoms to any recent stress without any evidence that it is necessarily relevant. And how can one ever be sure that a psychological stressor is ever relevant or is converting into a physical symptom? Therefore, a need emerged for an updated name change in the new classification manuals. Conversion Disorder is more often used in the US rather than the UK, and the term is also used more specifically if a known stressful event is identified.
FMD Functional Movement Disorder when used, it is most often by neurologists specializing in movement disorders. FMD falls under the umbrella term FND and referring to a specific spectrum of functional movement symptoms.
NES Non-Epileptic Seizure [NEAD Non-Epileptic Attack Disorder ] is seizure like activity but brain waves are not epileptic. There are 2 types:
- psychogenic seizure
- physiologic seizures
There are several causes for NES such as emotional trauma, migraine, narcolepsy, and other physiological conditions that have an effect on the flow of blood to the brain as well as constant changes in the levels of oxygen and sugar in the brain.
FNSD Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder was added as an inclusion term to Conversion Disorder in the DSM-5.
DD Dissociative Disorder is used to describe periods of detachment from self or surrounding which may be experienced as “unreal”. Conversion Disorder is currently listed under this heading in the ICD-10.
SSD Somatic Symptom Disorder is a new mental health category introduced for DSM-5 under new disorder section, “Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders.” It can be applied if a patient’s physical symptoms are very distressing or result in significant disruption of functioning and if the clinician considers the patients thoughts, feelings and behaviours regarding their symptoms are excessive, disproportionate or maladaptive. A major change is that distressing symptoms no longer need to be medically unexplained and the new SSD diagnosis can be applied in association with any diagnosed disease. The patient should be persistently symptomatic for at least 6 months.
BDD Bodily Distress Disorder is one of the terms that has been proposed to replace the ICD-10 Somatoform disorders categories for the mental health chapter of the ICD-11 Beta draft.
BDS Bodily Distress Syndrome is a disorder concept developed by Per Fink and colleagues that is already in use in Danish research studies and clinical settings. BDS is described as a unifying diagnosis that encompasses somatoform disorders, pain disorder, neurasthenia, fibromyalgia, IBS, CFS/ME and some other conditions under a single disorder classification.
FM Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread pain. Historically, Fibromyalgia was thought to have a pure psychogenic cause. However, recent research suggests alternative explanations.
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a disorder that leads to abdominal pain and changes in bowel movements.
ME/CFS Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is extreme fatigue, muscle or joint pain.
EMDR Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing uses eye movement to help completely process the experiences that are causing problems.
CBT Cognitive Behavioral Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts cause our feelings and behaviors, not external things like people, situations, or events. The benefit is we can change the way we think to feel/act better if a situation does not change.
DBT Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a form of psychotherapy. DBT combines standard CBT techniques for emotion regulation and reality-testing with concepts of distress tolerance, acceptance, and mindful awareness. Largely derived from Buddhist meditative practice.
OT Occupational Therapy is therapy based on reorienting patients back into doing everyday functions or help devise ways for patients with permanent disabilities to find ways to adapt to doing day to day tasks.
PT Physical Therapy is the use of physical methods to assist recovery of damaged tissue especially in muscles and joints. (US) Known as Physio Therapy in the UK.
EEG Electroencephalography is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp. Used to diagnose Epileptic Seizures.
VEEG Video Electroencephalography is the same as above only this time patient is monitored by video. (Telemetry)
EMG Electromyography is a Nerve Conduction test and measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve’s stimulation of the muscle.
NIH National Institute of Health a US government research center.
NHS National Health Service the UK health system.
DLA Disability Living Allowance is a tax-free benefit for disabled children and adults. (UK)
ESA Employment and Support Allowance money if you can’t work because of disability or illness. (UK)
SSDI Social Security Disability Insurance pays benefits only for total disability. (US)
CLASSIFICATION AND CODING:
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. It is an American publication but is used in the UK, Australia, France and many other countries. A new version, DSM-5, replaced DSM-IV in May 2013.
ICD International Classification of Diseases is used as a healthcare classification system or coding and recording diseases. Published by the World Health Organization and sponsored by the United Nations. The UK and many other countries use version ICD-10. The United States is behind the rest of the world but scheduled to transition to an adaptation of ICD-10, called ICD-10-CM, in October 2015. ICD-11 is under development.